Being an author does not depend on belonging to a certain profession or hierarchical position, nor on the type of employment relationship.
To be fully considered the author of research the following conditions must be met:
Have significantly contributed to the creative process, that is, the conception and design of the research, or the analysis and interpretation of the data.
Have contributed to preparing the results communications and publications.
Be able to make a detail presentation on his or her personal contribution to the research and discuss the main aspects of the other contributions.
Simply participating in obtaining resources or collecting data, such as the fact of supplying routine data or experimentation subjects should be recognised in the acknowledgements section and is not a justification for being an author.
A person connected to a research group who requests to be shown as an author ex officio due to his or her hierarchical position or employment relationship, breaches academic freedom and the principles of justice. Conversely, omitting a contributor to the communications or publications of a research project constitutes an undue appropriation of intellectual authorship.
For review articles, all authors must have participated in a critical analysis of the works cited. The publication of internal drafts, brief, working or technical reports and any other written work intended for third parties must state the authors of the research, in the same terms as if it were a scientific publication.
With respect to the order in which the authors are shown, the following general rule shall be followed:
The first author is the person who made the greatest effort in the research and prepared the first draft of the main article to be published
The senior participant who manages and/or has final responsibility in the research project is the last author.
The other authors are the other people who have contributed, often by order of importance, sometime in alphabetical order.
The author responsible for correspondence has the main responsibility throughout the publication process and in future interactions resulting from publication of the work.
When any one author in a publication cannot assume responsibility for all the content, his or her contribution will be identified separately, except in circumstances in which this issue is already governed by the publishing regulations.
The order in which the authors of a work are shown may be justified in a page footnote. Along these lines, when more than one author collaborates on a project and they have shared the main work of preparation of the manuscript and made the same effort, the second author will be considered equal to the first. This circumstance will be explicit in publication of the original. The same criterion can be applied in the case of senior authors.