Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

Applied Pathology

Applied Pathology
First semester
Main language of instruction: Spanish

Other languages of instruction: Catalan, English

Teaching staff


During the development of this subject, essential concepts will be studied so that the student can approach the patient with pathology of the Musculoskeletal System knowing the causes, symptoms and manifestations, and therapeutic measures of the main nosological entities included in it.

With the development of the subject, it will be addressed the fundamental principles of the Orthopedics, the semiology allowing the diagnosis of the pathological entities, some basic syndromes, congenital and developmental anomalies, pathologies of the upper, lower and spine, sport pathology, and tumor pathology.

The non-operative options and the surgical procedures to treat those pathologies will be studied in relation to the ortho-prosthetic current procedures, determining the indications of each one of them.

Pre-course requirements

Previous knowledge of the Anatomy, Physiology and Biomechanics of the Locomotor Apparatus is required.


1. Acquire basic knowledge about orthopedic pathology.

2. Know the mechanical and functional manifestations of the altered musculoskeletal system, thus detecting the signs and symptoms that constitute the fundamental basis to define a disease and to diagnose it.

3. Acquire basic knowledge in the assessment of osteoarticular pathology.

4. Acquire the ability to establish with an adequate hierarchical order the complementary explorations that facilitate the diagnosis in musculoskeletal pathology and to interpret each particular case.

5. Identify the opportune therapeutic indication, know the different technical options, their possibilities, risks and complications, with special interest in differentiating the indications of surgical and non-surgical treatment.

6. Become familiar with medical terminology.

7. Become familiar with the prognosis of the different processes.

8. Know the monitoring protocols.

9. Introduce the student in the concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) applied to the Pathology of the Musculskeletal System, instilling in the student the way of thinking and acting according to the scientific method.

10. Facilitate self-learning, learning to manage the appropriate bibliography, as well as the techniques of study and selection of information.


  • CB1 - Students must demonstrate that they have and understand knowledge in an area of study based on general secondary education. This knowledge should be of a level that, although based on advanced textbooks, also includes some of the cutting-edge elements from their field of study.
  • CB2 - Students must know how to apply their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and have the competences that are demonstrated through the creation and defence of arguments and the resolution of problems within their field of study.
  • CB3 - Students must have the ability to bring together and interpret significant data (normally within their area of study) and to issue judgements that include a reflection on important issues that are social, scientific or ethical in nature.
  • CB4 - Students can transmit information, ideas, problems and solutions to specialist and non-specialist audiences.
  • CB5 - Students have developed the necessary learning skills to undertake subsequent studies with a high degree of autonomy.
  • CE15 - The ability to undertake a project through the use of data sources, the application of methodologies, research techniques and tools specific to Bioengineering, give a presentation and publicly defend it to a specialist audience in a way that demonstrates the acquisition of the competences and knowledge that are specific to this degree programme.
  • CE16 - To apply specific Bioengineering terminology both verbally and in writing in a foreign language.
  • CE17 - To be able to identify the engineering concepts that can be applied in the fields of biology and health.
  • CE7 - To know how to recognise anatomy and physiology when applied to the structures Bioengineering involves.
  • CE8 - To hold a dialogue based on critical thinking on ideas connected to the main dimensions of the human being
  • CG1 - To undertake projects in the field of Bioengineering that aim to achieve a concept and a design, as well as manufacture prosthetics and orthotics that are specific to a certain pathology or need.
  • CG10 - To know how to work in a multilingual and multidisciplinary environment.
  • CG2 - To promote the values that are specific to a peaceful culture, thus contributing to democratic coexistence, respect for human rights and fundamental principles such as equality and non-discrimination.
  • CG3 - To be able to learn new methods and theories and be versatile so as to adapt to new situations.
  • CG4 - To resolve problems based on initiative, be good at decision-making, creativity, critical reasoning and communication, as well as the transmission of knowledge, skills and prowess in the field of Bioengineering
  • CG7 - To analyse and evaluate the social and environmental impact of technical solutions
  • CG8 - To apply quality principles and methods.
  • CT2 - The ability to link welfare with globalisation and sustainability; to acquire the ability to use skills, technology, the economy and sustainability in a balanced and compatible manner.
  • CT3 - To know how to communicate learning results to other people both verbally and in writing, and well as thought processes and decision-making; to participate in debates in each particular specialist areas.
  • CT4 - To be able to work as a member of an interdisciplinary team, whether as a member or by management tasks, with the aim of contributing to undertaking projects based on pragmatism and a feeling of responsibility, taking on commitment while bearing the resources available in mind.
  • CT5 - To use information sources in a reliable manner. To manage the acquisition, structuring, analysis and visualisation of data and information in your specialist area and critically evaluate the results of this management.
  • CT6 - To detect gaps in your own knowledge and overcome this through critical reflection and choosing better actions to broaden your knowledge.
  • CT7 - To be fluent in a third language, usually English, with a suitable verbal and written level that is in line with graduate requirements.

Learning outcomes

RA1. To know how to do a medical history oriented to the pathology of the locomotor system unsupervised and with competence.

RA2. To be able  to recognize by means of the physical examination anomalies in articulations (mobility, morphology, inflammatory signs) and spine (mobility, static), unsupervised and with competence.

RA3. To be able to indicate and interpret the complementary analytical and image studies in the locomotor apparatus with competence and without supervision.

RA4. - To have practiced the basic semiological interpretation of the simple radiology of the locomotor apparatus under supervision of the tutor.

RA5. Having seen practicing arthrocentesis by an expert.

RA6. Having seen practicing arthroscopy and more frequent surgical interventions by experts.

RA7. Have seen practicing infiltrations by an expert.

RA8. Recognize, diagnose and guide the management of tendinitis and bursitis.

RA9. Recognize, diagnose and guide the management of joint deformities.

RA10. Recognize, diagnose and guide the management of bone and soft tissue tumors.

RA11. Recognize, diagnose and guide the management of static alterations of the spine.

RA12. To know the congenital anomalies of the Musculoskeletal System.

RA13. To know the pediatric pathology of the extremities and of the spine.

RA14. To know the general indications of the main surgical techniques.

RA15. To know the complications of the main surgical techniques.

RA16. To know the sequelae on the locomotor system of neurological affections.

RA17. To know the amputations.

RA17. To know the indication of prosthesis, splints, supports for walking, etc.

RA18. To know the indication of physiotherapy and therapy with physical agents.







1. General principles of pathology and generalities of the human body.

2. Diagnostic imaging.

3. Fractures.

4. Amputations.

5. Soft tissue injuries and sports pathology.

6. Ligamentous and osteoarticular pathology.

7. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

8. Most frequent pathologies and orthopedic procedures in the upper extremity.

9. Most frequent pathology and orthopedic procedures in the lower extremity.

10. Most frequent pathology and orthopedic procedures in the trunk and spine.

11. Assessment of walking and jumping.

12. Altered gait and jump.




1. General aspects of the development of the nervous system and the pathologies related to the formation of the brain.

2. Processes of adult plasticity and neurodegenerative pathologies.

3. Reward circuits and addiction pathologies.

4. Generalities of motor circuits. Neuromuscular synapse and related pathologies.

5. Spinal cord injuries

6. Irrigation of the nervous system and cerebrovascular pathologies.

7. Generalities of sensory circuits, aging processes. Pathologies of the sense organs.

8. Mechanisms of pain.

9. General aspects of the endocrine system and related pathologies.



Teaching and learning activities

In person

Lectures are the setting for: learning and managing the terminology and language structures related to each scientific field. Practicing and developing oral and written communication skills. And learning how to analyse the bibliography and literature on Bioengineering. Using guidelines to identify and understand the main ideas during lectures. This academic activity has been an essential tool in education since it first began and should have a significant presence within the framework of this degree programme.
Case studies are a learning technique in which the subject is faced with a description of a specific situation that involves a problem, that must be understood, evaluated and resolved by a group of people through a process of debate. Case studies will generally be undertaken through group work, which promotes student participation, thus developing their critical thinking skills. It also prepares students for decision-making, teaching them to defend their arguments and contrast them with opinions from others in the group.
Student activities guided by the lecturer/professor will be undertaken on-site and the student’s evolution will be monitored consistently.
In theory classes the fundamental and scientific knowledge that forms the basis of the knowledge and rigour that engineering studies require must be established.
Individual work, involving study, the search for information, data processing and the internalisation of knowledge will allow students to consolidate their learning.
The idea is to provide students with interactive tutorials, in which the lecturer/professor responds to a request for information from the student. If necessary, the tutor will hold a debate with the student.

Evaluation systems and criteria

In person

Primera convocatoria 

Nota final: 55% examen parcial + 25% examen parcial + 20% evaluación continua



15 – 25 preguntas test. 

Pueden haber imágenes trabajadas en clase o contenido trabajado en casa. 

Entra toda la materia hasta la sesión anterior. 



30-40 preguntas test. 

Pueden haber imágenes trabajadas en clase, trabajos, evaluación continua, contenido trabajado en casa, etc. 

APROXIMADAMENTE (no es definitivo sino orientativo): 25% preguntas dr. Albert Pérez-Bellmunt. 25% preguntas dr. Jacobo Rodríguez. 25% preguntas dr. Antoni Parsedisas. 25% preguntas dr. Medina y Dª. Clemente. 



Evaluación continua: preguntas, trabajos y pruebas realizadas durante las clases (ya sean realizados de forma oral, por escrito o de forma virtual). Por la naturaleza de esta prueba no podrá haber revisión de este apartado. 


OBSERVACIONES: Para superar la asignatura es necesario superar el examen final con una nota igual o superior a 5. Para superar la asignatura es necesario que la media de la asignatura sea igual o superior a 5. Independientemente del motivo por el que haya suspendido (examen final o media), las personas que hayan suspendido la asignatura, tendrán que presentarse al examen de recuperación y tendrán que aprobarlo con una nota igual o superior a 5


Otras convocatoria 

Nota final (2º, 3º, 4º, 5 y 6º): 100% Examen final o de recuperación. Se supera con una nota de mínimo 5. 


EXAMEN DE RECUPERACIÓN: - 30-40 preguntas test. - pueden haber imágenes trabajadas en clase, trabajos, evaluación continua, contenido trabajado en casa, etc. 


Bibliography and resources

Traumatología y Ortopedia para el grado de Medicina. Fernando Marco Martinez. Ed. Elsevier, 2015.

Manual de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología. Sociedad Española de Traumatología y Cirugía Ortopédica (SECOT). Ed. Panamericana, 2010.

Orthopedic Physical Assessment Atlas and Video: Selected Special Tests and Movements. Magee & Sueki. Elsevier, 2011.

Websites related to the different topics will be provided during the course to guarantee its update.

Evaluation period

E: exam date | R: revision date | 1: first session | 2: second session:
  • E1 18/01/2023 A04 16:00h