Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

Dental Structure and Function

Dental Structure and Function
6
7874
1
Second semester
FB
Basic biomedical sciences relevant in dentistry
Anatomy and Physiology
Main language of instruction: Spanish

Other languages of instruction: Catalan, English

If the student is enrolled for the English track then classes for that subject will be taught in the same language.

Teaching staff


Contact by e-mail:  

 

Spanish group:

msalagaray@uic.es  

dolorscepe@uic.es

mteresaserra@uic.es

 

English group:

franabella@uic.es 

                                                                                                        

Introduction

Detailed knowledge of the anatomical structure and the role of the two dentitions (temporary and permanent) of the human being is fundamental for the future dentist to able to successfully perform preventive and curative treatments.

The dental treatment is aimed at both restoring alterations of the dentition and their optimal form and function. Healthy dentition, both in form and function, is the model to imitate when performing procedures as diverse as prostheses, fillings, root canals or orthodontic treatments, and it is only by knowing the exact internal and external morphology of all the teeth that we can perform dental treatments with success.

 This course is essential for each and every one of the clinical disciplines that students will follow in subsequent courses.

Pre-course requirements

Knowledge of the anatomical structures of the head and neck, specifically in the oral cavity and teeth, will help students to understand aspects of dental eruption, tooth position and function within the complex neuromuscular system that performs such important functions as chewing and swallowing and that is significantly involved in speech and in the relationship between people.

Objectives

To gain knowledge of the precise and detailed external and internal anatomy of each tooth.

This anatomical knowledge will enable an understanding of the function of each individual tooth and of the dental groups to which they belong.

 

Competencies

Specific skills

  • Know the morphology and function of the stomatognathic apparatus including appropriate contents in specific Embryology, Anatomy and Physiology.
  • Know the morphology and function of the structures that make up the human dentition and the dental support structures
  • Recognize in the diagnostic tests by the image of the head and neck, the anatomical structures and identify possible morphological and functional alterations
  • Know the biomedical sciences on which dentistry is based to ensure proper oral assistance. These sciences should include appropriate content of: (a). Embryology, anatomy, histology and physiology of the human body (b). Genetics, Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology (c). Microbiology and immunology
  • Know the morphology and function of the stomatognathic apparatus, including appropriate contents of specific embryology, anatomy, histology and physiology
  • Know how to share information with other healthcare professionals and work as a team
  • Understand the importance of maintaining and using records with patient information for further analysis, preserving the confidentiality of the data.
  • Understand the basic biomedical sciences on which dentistry is based to ensure proper oral assistance
  • Understand and recognize the normal structure and function of the stomatognathic apparatus, at the molecular, cellular, tissue and organic levels, at different stages of life
  • Know the scientific method and have a critical capacity to assess established knowledge and novel information. Being able to formulate hypotheses, collect and critically assess information for problem solving, following the scientific method

Learning outcomes

The student must end up knowing perfectly the dental morphology of each particular tooth through all its faces to end up knowing how to reproduce it in the mouth. Understanding the form from the function.

 

  • Understand and describe the embryological origin of bucomaxilofacial structures. The origin and eruption of dentitions in humans
  • Know in detail the specific morphology of permanent dentition
  • Being able to recognize the different dental classes and all their differential characteristics in the crown and in the root
  • Recognize the anatomical details of the different faces (mesial, distal, vestibular and lingual) of each of the dental pieces of the permanent and temporary dentition
  • Know the different tissues that make up the teeth. Its distribution and histological characteristics.
  • Being able to reproduce the characteristics of the teeth by modeling or drawing
  • Know the position of the teeth in the dental arches, the position of the bones that support them and the function of other elements that contribute to the function of the teeth in the oral cavity
  • Solve clinical problems from deductions made with basic knowledge of anatomy and function of teeth
  • Identify through imaging techniques, structures of the different topographic regions of the oral cavity and teeth in particular
  • Understand and recognize the normal structure and function of the stomatognathic apparatus, at the molecular and cellular level

Syllabus

BLOCK I: INTRODUCTION TO DENTAL MORPHOLOGY.

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF DENTAL ANATOMY

OBJECTIVES: To know what dental anatomy is. Application of dental anatomy in dentistry and other areas. General characteristics of human dentition.

UNIT 1: Generalities.

Definition. Clinical practice application. Application in other areas.

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BLOCK II: NOMENCLATURE AND DENTAL TERMINOLOGY.

OBJECTIVES: Recognize the different types of dentition. Distinguish, by position, each of the teeth. Know and apply the different dental nomenclatures. Differentiate the parts of each tooth. Compare dimensions and surfaces. Identify the main characteristics of the teeth on both the coronal and root surfaces. Compare the function of each tooth.

UNIT 2: Human dentition.

Definition. Characteristics. Arrangement of teeth in the arches. Dental formula

UNIT 3: Dental nomenclature systems.

Full anatomical definition. Universal system. Zsigmondy-Palmer system. International numbering system.

UNIT 4: Anatomical parts of the tooth.

Crown. Root. Neck. Dental surfaces. Dental divisions Lobes of development. Anatomical elements of the crown.

UNIT 5: Radicular Anatomy.

Internal and external anatomical root morphology. Pulp chamber and root canals. Apical and periapical region. Root morphology of each tooth.

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BLOCK III: ANATOMIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF PERMANENT DENTITION.

OBJECTIVES: Identify the external morphology of the different types of teeth. Distinguish the teeth according to their dental group, arcade to which they belong and type of tooth. 

UNIT 6: Permanent incisors. Unique features. Common and differential characteristics of the incisive class.

6.1 Maxillary central incisor: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision. 

6.2 Maxillary lateral incisor: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

6.3 Central mandibular incisor: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

6.4 Mandibular lateral incisor: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

UNIT 7: Permanent canines. Unique features. Common and differential characteristics of the canine class.

7.1 Maxillary canine: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision. 

7.2 Mandibular canine: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Incisal vision. Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

UNIT 8: Permanent premolars. Unique features. Common and differential characteristics of the premolar class.

8.1 First maxillary or superior premolar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

8.2 Second maxillary or superior premolar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

8.3 First mandibular or inferior premolar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

8.4 Second mandibular or inferior premolar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Vestibular and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

UNIT 9: Permanent molars. Unique features. Common and differential characteristics of the molar class.

9.1 First maxillary or superior molar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

9.2 Second maxillary or superior molar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Vestibular and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

9.3 First mandibular or lower molar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Vestibular and lingual vision. Proximal vision.

9.4 Second mandibular or lower molar: Description of the crown. Free and proximal faces. Buccal and lingual vision. Mesial and distal vision. Occlusal vision Root Description Characteristics. Buccal and lingual vision. Proximal vision. 

9.5 Third maxillary and mandibular molars. General characteristics.

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BLOCK IV: DENTAL TRAINING

OBJECTIVES: Development and eruption of teeth. Stages of dental eruption. Primary dentition Primary dentition replacement. Permanent dentition. Dental age Description and formation of dental tissues: Enamel, dentin, cement and pulp. Periodontal tissues: soft and supportive tissues.

UNIT 10: Embryology.

Introduction to embryology. Generalities of Odontogenesis. Morphogenesis of the dental organ. Development and formation of the coronary pattern. Development and formation of the root pattern. Histogenesis of the dental organ.

UNIT 11: Dental tissues.

Dental tissues: Enamel, enamel, dentin, cement

UNIT 12: Development and dental eruption.

Generalities Stages of dental eruption. Primary dentition Primary dentition replacement. Permanent dentition. Dental age

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BLOCK V: ANATOMIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF TEMPORARY DENTITION

OBJECTIVES: General about temporary dentition. Differences between temporary and permanent dentition. Differences between the characteristics of temporary and permanent teeth. Identify the coronal and root morphology of each temporal tooth.

UNIT 13: Temporary incisors.

Generalities Description of the central and lateral incisors.

Comparison with permanent incisors. Similarities and differences.

UNIT 14: Temporary canines.

Generalities Description of the maxillary and mandibular temporal canines. Comparison with permanent canines. Similarities and differences.

UNIT 15: Temporary molars.

Generalities Description of the first maxillary and mandibular temporal molars. Description of the maxillary and mandibular second molars. Comparison with the permanent ones. Similarities and differences.

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

BLOCK VI: DENTITION AND ITS FUNCTION

OBJECTIVES: Definition of occlusion. Intersected dental relationships. Occlusal relations anterior and posterior teeth. Optimal occlusion

UNIT 16: Orofacial complex.

Generalities Shape of the teeth Function of the teeth Dental alignment Proximal contacts Embrasures Cervical line Occlusal plane

TOPIC 17: Occlusion.

Definition. Intersected dental relationships. Occlusal relations of the posterior teeth. Dental relationships of the anterior teeth. Occlusal contacts during mandibular movement. Optimal occlusion

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ACTIVITIES PRACTICE SESSIONS

Spanish group

14 practices x 2 (two practices every friday) and one day a practice exam.

Practice A: M1 group 8:00-9:30H /Grupo M2 9:30-11:00

Practice B: M2 group 8:00-9:30H /Grupo M1 9:30-11:00h

 

English group

14 practice X 2 (2 practices every thursday) and one day exam.

Practice I

Introduction and objectives of the practices. Dynamics, evaluation and necessary material. Practice 1A: Importance of knowing dental anatomy and morphology. Objectives of the practice: Know and identify the characteristics of dental anatomy to apply and reproduce it in dental practice. Practice 1B: Dental Formula Objectives of the practice: Elaborate and interpret dental formulas of different species. Identify the disposition of the teeth in the arch. Necessary material: Lab coat, sheets, pencils

Practice II

Indirect exploration  Objectives of the practice: Manipulate, visualize and identify the instruments necessary for a dental exploration. Assess indirect vision and its importance. Recognize dental groups, alterations in number, cavities. Practice 2B: Dental nomenclature system Objectives of the practice: Know the nomenclature systems: Universal System, Zsigmondy-Palmer System, International Numbering System or FDI Materials needed: Lab coat, sheets, pencil, pen  

Practice III

Practice 3A: Central incisor drawing Objectives of the practice: To know the anatomical features of the central incisors on all their faces: vestibular, lingual, mesial, distal and incisal edge. Differentiate the upper ones from the lower ones: size, shape, number of roots. Reproduce their anatomy in the drawing made by each student. Determine crown-root ratio. Practice 3B: Identification of the crown division. Objectives of the practice: Differentiate clinical crown and anatomical crown. Differentiate clinical root and anatomical root. Identify tooth surfaces. Know the dental divisions in the cervico-occlusal, vestibulolingual and mesiodistal directions. Identification of angles and vertices. Necessary material: Lab coat, white sheets, graph paper, pens, ruler.  

Practice IV

Practice 4A: Lateral incisor drawing Objectives of the practice: To know the anatomical features of the lateral incisors on all their faces: vestibular, lingual, mesial, distal and incisal edge. Differentiate the upper ones from the lower ones: size, shape, number of roots. Reproduce their anatomy in the drawing made by each student. Determine crown-root ratio. Practice 4B: Root Anatomy Objectives of the practice: Identify the external morphology of the root: neck, trunk and furcation. Identify the internal morphology: pulp chamber and root canals. Necessary material: Lab coat, white sheets, graph paper, pens, ruler.  

Practice V

Practice 5A: Canine drawing Objectives of the practice: To know the anatomical features of the canines on all their faces: vestibular, lingual, mesial, distal and incisal edge. Differentiate the upper ones from the lower ones: size, shape, number of roots. Reproduce their anatomy in the drawing made by each student. Determine crown-root ratio. Practice 5B: Measurement of teeth Objectives of the practice: Calculate the crown-root index of the teeth. Correctly measure the following parameters of the anterior and posterior teeth: crown length, root length, mesiodistal crown diameter, mesiodistal crown diameter at the neck, vestibulolingual crown diameter, buccolingual crown diameter at the neck. Materials needed: Lab coat, 3 anterior teeth, 3 posterior teeth, graph paper, pens, ruler.  

Practice VI

Practice 6A: Drawing of the premolars Objectives of the practice: To know the anatomical features of the premolars on all their faces: vestibular, lingual, mesial, distal and occlusal edge. Differentiate the upper ones from the lower ones: size, shape, number of roots. Reproduce their anatomy in the drawing made by each student. Determine crown-root ratio. Practice 6B: Exam Objectives of the practice: Evaluate the knowledge obtained to date. Necessary material: Lab coat, white sheets, graph paper, pens, ruler.  

Practice VII

Practice 7A: Drawing of the molars Objectives of the practice: To know the anatomical features of the first and second molars on all their faces: vestibular, lingual, mesial, distal and occlusal edge. Differentiate the upper ones from the lower ones: size, shape, number of roots. Reproduce their anatomy in the drawing made by each student. Determine crown-root ratio Practice 7B: Anterior teeth morphology Objectives of the practice: Identify and draw eminences (cusps, ridges, tubercles) and depressions (furrows and pits). Identify the marginal ridges, lingual fossa, cingulum, pits. Necessary material: Lab coat, white sheets, graph paper, pens, ruler.  

Practice VIII

Practice 8A: Carving 3 teeth in soap Objectives of the practice: Carve an upper or lower central-lateral incisor in soap. Develop the manual skill of the student. Identify the different anatomical structures. Orient the teeth in space. Practice 8B: Posterior teeth morphology Objectives of the practice: Identify and draw eminences (cusps, ridges, tubercles) and depressions (furrows and pits). In relation to the cusps: identify the edges and slopes that make them up, name them according to their location. Differentiate the ridges: cusp ridges, marginal ridges, occlusal ridges. Identify the different types of furrows and pits. Necessary material:Lab coat, paper, pencils, colors, 3 bars of soap.  

Practice IX

Practice 9A: Carving canine or premolar soap Objectives of the practice: Carve in soap an upper or lower canine or premolar. Develop the manual skill of the student. Identify the different anatomical structures. Orient the teeth in space. Practice 9B: Identification of extracted teeth. Objectives of the practice: Identify extracted natural teeth describing their external morphology. Necessary material: Lab coat, 3 bars of soap.  

Practice X

Practice 10A: Soap carving Objectives of the practice: Carve a tooth in soap. Develop the manual skill of the student. Identify the different anatomical structures. Orient the teeth in space. Practice 10B: Dental tissues Objectives of the practice: Draw and identify the following dental and support tissues: enamel, dentin, pulp, cementum: cellular and acellular, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone: alveolar bone proper, supporting alveolar bone. Necessary material: Lab coat, sheets, pens, 3 bars of soap.  

Practice XI

Practice 11A: Soap carving Objectives of the practice: Carve a tooth in soap. Develop the manual skill of the student. Identify the different anatomical structures. Orient the teeth in space. Practice 11B: Dental age Objectives of the practice: Identify the dental age of the patients studied using orthopantomographs. Necessary material: Lab coat, 3 bars of soap.  

Practice XII

Practice 12A: Presentation of group work. Objectives of the practice: To develop the ability to summarize, synthesize, and transmit the characteristics of a tooth exhibiting them in class. Teamwork. Evaluate colleagues in the exhibition. Review the contents of the theoretical subject taking them to practice. Practice 12B: Temporary teeth Objectives of the practice: Draw and describe the anatomy of primary teeth. Know the differential characteristics between temporary and permanent dentitions. By using the Software app Atlas of Tooth Development and Eruption of the Queen Mary University of London, students will be able to interactively observe the different phases of tooth eruption and will be able to respond to the proposed test. Necessary material: Lab coat, sheets, pencils, computer or tablet.  

Practice XIII

Practice 13A: Presentation of group work. Objectives of the practice: To develop the ability to summarize, synthesize, and transmit the characteristics of a tooth exhibiting them in class. Teamwork. Evaluate colleagues in the exhibition. Review the contents of the theoretical subject taking them to practice. Practice 13B: Identification of extracted teeth Objectives of the practice: Identify natural teeth describing their external morphology. We will review the characteristics of the morphology of each tooth. Necessary material: Lab coat.

Teaching and learning activities

In person



There will be three hours of theoretical content being reinforced by three hours of lab sessions.

The contents of the week will be reinforced through tasks, questionnaires, forums, activities, etc.

Evaluation systems and criteria

In person



The final evaluation of the subject is made by means of the grade resulting from the sum of the grades of the following three blocks:


1-. PRACTICE: 40% of the final grade. The student must have a minimum of 50% of the score of this block to be able to pass the subject. It includes practical activities, delivery of drawings and carved teeth.

ATTENDANCE TO THE PRACTICES IS COMPULSORY. The absence with or without justification to more than three practices will make it impossible for the student to take the exam and therefore to pass the subject, having to make up the practices to be able to present to the second call. The student will have to pass an exam of the practice block.

2-. CONTINUOUS EVALUATION ACTIVITIES 10% of the final grade. Class and Moodle activities.

3-. THEORY: 50% of the final grade. Passing the fina exam is required to pass the subject

Bibliography and resources

  • Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion. Nelson SJ. Elsevier 9th Edition.
  • Anatomy of Orofacial Structures. Brand RW, Isselhard DE. Mosby. 9th Edition.
  • Dental Anatomy: Its Relevance to Dentistry. Woefel JB. Scheid RC. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 6th Revised edition.
  • Dental morphology. Carlsen O. John Wiley & Sons, Limited, 1987
  • Essentials of Oral Histology and Embryology: A Clinical Approach. Avery JK, Chiego DJ. Mosby 3rd Edition.
  • Color Atlas and Text of Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology. Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR, Moxham BJ. Mosby 2nd Edition.
  • Atlas of Anatomy: Prometheus. Gilroy AM, MacPherson BR, Ross LM. Medica Panamericana 2nd Edition.
  • Netter's Head and Neck Anatomy for Dentistry. Norton NS. Netter FH.  Elsevier 3rd Edition.
  • Sicher’s Oral Anatomy. DuBrul ELl. Mosby 7th Edition.