Universitat Internacional de Catalunya

The Basics and Electronic Systems

The Basics and Electronic Systems
6
12482
2
First semester
OB
TECHNOLOGY TRAINING
TECHNOLOGY
Main language of instruction: Spanish

Other languages of instruction: Catalan, English

Teaching staff



An appointment with the teacher must be arranged by institutional email.

Introduction

In this subject, the theoretical and practical foundations necessary to work with circuits and electronic systems are received. From the simplest passive components to transistors, operational amplifiers and their applications. This knowledge is being worked in parallel with the necessary mathematical tools oriented to the analysis of circuits, such as; resolution of matrices, differential equations and Laplace transform. From the practical point of view, the students will work in the electronics laboratory where we will practice the implementation of the most representative circuits studied in this subject.

Pre-course requirements

In order to successfully complete the subject, it is recommended that the student has completed the following first year subjects:
-Algebra
-Calculus

Objectives

The fundamental objective of the course is to introduce the student to the basic concepts of electronic systems and their applications:

  1. Understand the concept of potential difference, intensity and electrical resistance (Knowledge / Understanding).
  2. Describe the basic laws of circuit theory. Kirchhoff's Laws (Knowledge / Comprehension).
  3. Describe the basic electronic components and know how to classify and resistive or reactive components (Knowledge / Comprehension).
  4. Understand the physics of semiconductor materials (Knowledge).
  5. Describe the operation of the semiconductor diode and its regions of work (Knowledge / Understanding).
  6. Describe basic diode-based half-wave and full-wave rectifier circuits (Knowledge).
  7. Describe the operation of transistors and their working regions (Knowledge / Comprehension).
  8. Define the operation of the operational amplifier and its working regions (Knowledge / Understanding).
  9. Define the characteristics of the real and ideal op amp (Knowledge).
  10. Describe and know how to identify negative and positive feedback in a circuit with amplifiers (Knowledge / Understanding).
  11. Describe linear and nonlinear operators based on the operational amplifier (Comprehension).
  12. Describe the concept of transfer function (Knowledge).
  13. Describe the frequency concept of cutoff (Knowledge).
  14. Define the Fourier transform and its application in filter design (Knowledge / Comprehension).
  15. Describe the Convolution Theorem and its application in filter design (Knowledge / Comprehension).
  16. Classify the filtering circuits according to the type of filtering and its order (Knowledge / Understanding).
  17. Differentiate between active and passive filtering (Knowledge).

Competencies

  • CB1 - Students must demonstrate that they have and understand knowledge in an area of study based on general secondary education. This knowledge should be of a level that, although based on advanced textbooks, also includes some of the cutting-edge elements from their field of study.
  • CB2 - Students must know how to apply their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional way and have the competences that are demonstrated through the creation and defence of arguments and the resolution of problems within their field of study.
  • CB3 - Students must have the ability to bring together and interpret significant data (normally within their area of study) and to issue judgements that include a reflection on important issues that are social, scientific or ethical in nature.
  • CB4 - Students can transmit information, ideas, problems and solutions to specialist and non-specialist audiences.
  • CB5 - Students have developed the necessary learning skills to undertake subsequent studies with a high degree of autonomy.
  • CE12 - To undertake a professional project in the field of Bioengineering-specific technologies in which knowledge acquired through teaching is synthesised and incorporated.
  • CE13 - To identify, understand and use the principles behind electronics, sensors, air conditioners and systems that acquire biomedical signals
  • CE15 - The ability to undertake a project through the use of data sources, the application of methodologies, research techniques and tools specific to Bioengineering, give a presentation and publicly defend it to a specialist audience in a way that demonstrates the acquisition of the competences and knowledge that are specific to this degree programme.
  • CE16 - To apply specific Bioengineering terminology both verbally and in writing in a foreign language.
  • CE17 - To be able to identify the engineering concepts that can be applied in the fields of biology and health.
  • CE18 - To define the main principles of the technologies that are used for the design and manufacture of micro and nano-sensors in biotechnological areas.
  • CG10 - To know how to work in a multilingual and multidisciplinary environment.
  • CG2 - To promote the values that are specific to a peaceful culture, thus contributing to democratic coexistence, respect for human rights and fundamental principles such as equality and non-discrimination.
  • CG3 - To be able to learn new methods and theories and be versatile so as to adapt to new situations.
  • CG4 - To resolve problems based on initiative, be good at decision-making, creativity, critical reasoning and communication, as well as the transmission of knowledge, skills and prowess in the field of Bioengineering
  • CG7 - To analyse and evaluate the social and environmental impact of technical solutions
  • CG8 - To apply quality principles and methods.
  • CG9 - The ability to organise and plan in the field of business, as well as in institutions and organisations.
  • CT2 - The ability to link welfare with globalisation and sustainability; to acquire the ability to use skills, technology, the economy and sustainability in a balanced and compatible manner.
  • CT3 - To know how to communicate learning results to other people both verbally and in writing, and well as thought processes and decision-making; to participate in debates in each particular specialist areas.
  • CT4 - To be able to work as a member of an interdisciplinary team, whether as a member or by management tasks, with the aim of contributing to undertaking projects based on pragmatism and a feeling of responsibility, taking on commitment while bearing the resources available in mind.
  • CT5 - To use information sources in a reliable manner. To manage the acquisition, structuring, analysis and visualisation of data and information in your specialist area and critically evaluate the results of this management.
  • CT6 - To detect gaps in your own knowledge and overcome this through critical reflection and choosing better actions to broaden your knowledge.
  • CT7 - To be fluent in a third language, usually English, with a suitable verbal and written level that is in line with graduate requirements.

Learning outcomes

Know how to calculate the variation of resistance as a function of the ideal conductor temperature (Application).
Know how to calculate power in a circuit (Application).
Solve simple circuits with passive components (Application).
Solve simple circuits with diodes (Application).
Solve simple circuits with transistors (Application).
Solve simple circuits based on the operational amplifier (Application).
Obtain the transfer function of active and passive filtered circuits (Application).

 

 

Syllabus

Chapter 0. Course introduction

0.1 Introduction to the analog electronics.

0.2 Introduction to the phenomenon of bioelectricity and excitable cells.

 

Chapter 1. Physical fundamentals of electricity

1.1 Definition of electric current.

1.2 Real and conventional sense of electric current.

1.3 Electrical field definition.

1.4 Potential difference.

1.5 Speed of majority load carriers.

1.6 Concentration of majority load carriers.

1.7 Electric current intensity.

1.8 Electrical resistance.

1.9 Conductivity.

1.10. Current density.

1.11 Microscopic and macroscopic Ohm Law.

1.12 Electrical power.

 

Application examples.

 

Chapter 2. Circuit theory

2.1 Basic laws of electrical circuits.

2.1.1 Ohm's Law.

2.1.2 Kirchoff Laws: First Kirchoff's law (KCL) and Second Kirchoff's Law (KVL).

2.1.3. Equivalent resistance: serial grouping and parallel grouping.

2.2 Basic circuits.

2.2.1 Voltage divider.

2.2.2 Current divider.

 

Chapter 3. Elements of circuit theory

3.1 Classification of the elements of a circuit.

3.2 Current-voltage (i-v) feature.

3.3 Definition of a linear function.

3.4 Temporary definition of power and power.

3.5 Power absorption and dissipation.

3.6 Open circuit and closed circuit.

3.7 Virtual short circuit.

3.8 The resistor.

3.9 current-voltage phase plan (i-v).

3.10 The capacitor and coil.

3.11 Independent current voltage sources.

3.12 Dependent current voltage sources.

3.13 Effect of disconnection of sources.

3.14 Static operation of the condenser and coil.

3:15 Equivalent circuit.

3.15.1 Thevenin equivalent.

3.15.2 Norton equivalent.

 

Exercises: circuit resolution, circuit analysis in the temporal domain.

Example of application: the cardiovascular circuit.

 

Chapter 4. The semiconductor diode

4.1 Physics of semiconductor materials.

4.1.1 Classification of semiconductor elements.

4.1.2 Conductivity of a material.

4.1.3 The power band model.

4.1.4 Stability of a material.

4.1.5 Insulating materials.

4.1.6 Conductive Materials.

4.1.7 Semiconductor materials

4.1.7.1 Extrinsic semiconductor material.

4.1.7.2 Intrinsic semiconductor material. 

4.2 The semiconductor diode.

4.2.1 The pn junction.

4.2.2. Current transport mechanisms.

4.2.2.1 Broadcast current.

4.2.2.2 Drag current.

4.2.3 Polarization of the diode.

4.2.4 Current-voltage (i-v) characteristic of the diode.

4.2.5 Diode models. Segmental modelling.

 

Exercises: circuit resolution with diodes.

 

Chapter 5. Rectifying circuits

5.1. Block diagram of a regulated voltage source.

5.2 Half-wave rectifier.

5.3 Full wave rectifier with middle ground intake.

5.4 Full wave rectifier with Graetz bridge.

5.5 Encapsulated rectifiers.

5.6 The Zener diode.

5.7 Electrical scheme of a regulated voltage source.

 

Chapter 6. The transistor 

6.1 The generic transistor.

6.2 Classification of transistors.

6.3 Transistor applications.

6.4 History of the transistor.

6.4.1 The vacuum valve.

6.4.2 The discovery of the transistor.

6.5 The bipolar junction transistor (BJT).

6.5.1 Amplification with BJT transistor.

6.5.2 Internal structure of the BJT transistor.

6.5.3 BJT transistor encapsulations.

6.5.4 BJT transistor operating regions, current-voltage characteristic (i-v).

6.5.5 Ebers-Moll models of BJT transistor.

6.5.6 Typical BJT transistor configurations.

6.5.7 MAIN BJT transistor polarization circuits.

6.5.8 Dc transistor analysis.

6.5.8.1 Analytical analysis in DC.

6.5.8.2 Graphical analysis in DC (Load Line).

6.5.9 Cascade configurations: Darlington and Sziklai.

6.6 BJT transistor applications.

6.6.1 BJT transistor operating modes.

6.6.1.1 The transistor in linear regime. Operation as an amplifier.

6.6.1.2 The switching transistor. Operation as a switch.

6.6.2 The transistor as a driver.

6.6.3 The transistor in digital logic.

6.7 The Field Effect Transistor (FET).

6.7.1 Internal structure of the JFET transistor.

6.7.2 Internal structure of the MOSFET transistor.

6.7.3 JFET transistor operating regions.

6.7.4 MOSFET transistor operating regions.

6.7.5 Shockley equation for JFET transistor.

6.7.6 Ebers-Moll models of the JFET transistor.

6.7.7 Shockley equation for MOSFET transistor.

6.7.8 Channel length modulation.

6.7.9 Ebers-Moll models of the MOSFET transistor.

 

Exercises: circuit resolution with transistors.

 

Chapter 7. The operational amplifier

7.1. Operational amplifier concept.

7.2 Power supply of an operational amplifier: bipolar and unipolar.

7.3 Input voltage: differential and common mode.

7.4 Operating Regions.

7.5 The actual model of the amplifier.

7.6 The ideal model of the amplifier.

7.6.1 The ideal model of the linear region amplifier: gain, input and output impedance.

7.6.2 The ideal model of the saturated amplifier.

7.7 The concept of virtual short circuit.

7.8 Internal structure of the operational amplifier.

7.9 General system based on operational amplifier.

7.10 Operating amplifier operating modes.

7.10.1 The operational amplifier in open loop.

7.10.2 The operational amplifier in closed loop.

7.10.2.1 The closed loop amplifier with positive feedback.

7.10.2.2 The closed loop amplifier with negative feedback.

7.11 Systems based on the operational amplifier.

7.11.1 Linear systems.

7.11.1.1 Closed loop with negative feedback with linear components.

7.11.1.1.1 Inverting amplifier.

7.11.1.1.2 Non-inverting amplifier.

7.11.1.1.3 Differential amplifier or subtracter.

7.11.1.1.4 Non-inverting adder amplifier.

7.11.1.1.5 Inverting adder amplifier.

7.11.1.1.6 Inverting derivative amplifier.

7.11.1.1.7 Inverting integrator amplifier.

7.11.1.1.8 Non-inverting integrator amplifier.

7.11.1.1.9 The instrumentation amplifier.

7.11.2 Nonlinear systems.                                                        

7.11.2.1 Open loop.

7.11.2.1.1 Inverting comparator.

7.11.2.1.2 Non-inverting comparator.

7.11.2.2 Closed loop with positive feedback.

7.11.2.2.1 Inverting comparator with hysteresis (inverting trigger Schmitt).

7.11.2.2.2 Non-inverting comparator with hysteresis (Trigger Schmitt).

7.11.2.3 Closed loop with negative feedback and nonlinear components.

7.11.2.3.1 Half-wave precision rectifier.

7.11.2.3.2 Practical circuit of the Half-wave wave precision rectifier.

7.11.2.3.3 Full wave precision rectifier.

7.11.2.3.4 Logarithmic amplifier.

7.11.2.3.5 Antilogarithmic or exponential amplifier.

7.11.2.3.6 Analog multiplier.

7.11.2.3.7 Analog adder.

7.11.2.3.8 Analog rooter.

 

Exercises: Analysis of circuits based on the operational amplifier.

Examples of application: Triangular signal generator based on the operational amplifier, rectification of the EMG signal with a precision rectifier, the instrumentation amplifier to acquire ECG signals.

 

Chapter 8. Filters

8.1 The concept of analog filter.

8.2 The concept of angular frequency.

8.3 The Fourier transform.

8.4 Classification of filters. Analog and digital.

8.5 Types of filters. Low-Pass, High-Pass and Band-Pass filters.

8.6 The multiplication of convolution.

8.7 The convolution theorem.

8.8 The Laplace Transform.

8.9 The transfer function of a system.

8.10 Order of a system.

8.11 Roots of a system. Poles and zeroes.

8.12 The ideal filter.

8.13 Filter approximations.

8.13.1 Butterworth Approach.

8.13.2 Approach of Chebyshev.

8.13.3 Legendre Approach.

8.14 Comparison of filter approximations.

8.15 Normalized filter transfer functions.

8.16 Analog filters. Assets and liabilities.

8.16.1 Structures first order.

8.16.2 Second order structures.

8.16.3 Sallen-Key Structures.

 

Exercises: Obtaining the standardized transfer function of active and passive filters.

Teaching and learning activities

In person



TRAINING ACTIVITYMETHODOLOGYCOMPETENCES
Project-oriented learning is a method based on experiential and reflective learning in which the research process on a particular subject is of great importance. The aim is to resolve complex problems based on open solutions or tackle difficult issues that allow new knowledge to be generated and new skills to be developed by students.
Lectures are the setting for: learning and managing the terminology and language structures related to each scientific field. Practicing and developing oral and written communication skills. And learning how to analyse the bibliography and literature on Bioengineering. Using guidelines to identify and understand the main ideas during lectures. This academic activity has been an essential tool in education since it first began and should have a significant presence within the framework of this degree programme.
Reading texts with the aim of engaging critical thinking plays a fundamental role in learning for citizens who are both aware and responsible.
An activity for outside the classroom. This activity means students can allow their knowledge to settle and rest, which is always necessary before beginning a new task.
The professor sets out exercises and problems, helps students to progress in terms of the engineering process the design involves, and guides the student, thus partial goals are achieved that facilitate the incorporation of the theoretical knowledge acquired.
Practical classes allow students to interact at first hand with the tools they will need to use in their work. In small groups or individually practical demonstrations will be carried out based on the theoretical knowledge acquired during the theory classes.
In theory classes the fundamental and scientific knowledge that forms the basis of the knowledge and rigour that engineering studies require must be established.
This teaching method is based on reflection, it can provide students with useful knowledge and skills to tackle problems efficiently in a shorter period of time.
Individual work, involving study, the search for information, data processing and the internalisation of knowledge will allow students to consolidate their learning.
CB1 CB2 CB3 CB4 CB5 CE12 CE13 CE15 CE17 CE20 CE8 CG10 CG2 CG3 CG4 CG6 CG7 CT2 CT3 CT4 CT5 CT6 CT7

Evaluation systems and criteria

In person



 

The final grade of the subject will be obtained as

Nota=0,2·Nep +0,3·Nef +0,3·Nlab+0,2·Ntreb

where

Nep : Partial exam grade

Nef : Final exam grade

Nlab : Lab grade

Ntreb : Course work grade 

 

To apply for the apt, it is essential to carry out the laboratory practices of the subject.

 

Important considerations:

  1. Plagiarism, copying or any other action that may be considered cheating will be zero in that evaluation section. Besides, plagiarism during exams will mean the immediate failing of the whole subject.
  2. In the second-sitting exams, the maximum grade students will be able to obtain is "Excellent" (grade with honors distinction will not be possible).
  3. Changes of the calendar, exam dates or the evaluation system will not be accepted.
  4. Exchange students (Erasmus and others) or repeaters will be subjected to the same conditions as the rest of the students.

Bibliography and resources

Resources:

The slides of the subject are available on the virtual campus of the course.

 

Basic bibliography:

[1] Prat et al. Circuits i dispositius electrònics. Edicions UPC. Barcelona, 2002. ISBN: 848301574 9. 

[2] William, Hayt H. 9ª ed. Análisis de circuitos en ingeniería. McGraw-Hill. México DF, 2019.  ISBN: 9781456272135.

[3] John Semmlow. Third ed. Circuits, Signals and Systems for Bioengineers: A MATLAB-Based Introduction. Academic Press. London, 2017.  ISBN: 978-0-12-809395-5 

Complementary bibliography:

[1] Keskin, Ali Ümit. 2017. Electrical Circuits in Biomedical Engineering. Problems with solutions. Springer. ISBN: 978-3-319-55101-2.

[2] Sedra, Adel S.; Kenneth C. Smith. 5ª ed. Circuitos Microelectrónicos. McGraw-Hill. Mexico DF, 2006. ISBN-13: 9789701054727.

[3] Fiore, James M. Amplificadores operacionales y circuitos integrados lineales. Thomson. Madrid, 2002. ISBN: 8497320999.

Evaluation period

E: exam date | R: revision date | 1: first session | 2: second session:
  • E1 09/01/2023 A10 12:00h